The place the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers meet, forming the fashionable border between Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe, lies a hill that hardly stands out from the remaining. One may simply move it with out realising its historical significance. It was on and round this hill that what seems to be southern Africa’s earliest state-level society and concrete metropolis, Mapungubwe, appeared round 800 years in the past.
After practically a century of research, we’ve learnt rather a lot about this historic kingdom and the way it arose amongst early farmer society and its involvement in international commerce networks. Nevertheless, earlier than farmers settled the area, this terrain was the house of hunter-gatherer teams, who’ve hardly been acknowledged regardless of, because it appears, their involvement within the rise of Mapungubwe.
My team and I’ve been working in northern South Africa at websites that we imagine will assist us recognise the roles performed by hunter-gatherers through the growth of the Mapungubwe state in a bid to generate a extra inclusive representation of the region’s past.
Our major examine web site is named Little Muck Shelter. It’s within the Mapungubwe National Park and about 4km south of the Limpopo River. The shelter is pretty massive with a protected space below a excessive ceiling and a big open area in entrance. It additionally has many work on its partitions, together with elephants, kudu, felines, individuals, and a shocking set of giraffes. This artwork was produced by hunter-gatherers and it’s usually thought of to consult with the spirit-world and the actions of shamans therein.
The outcomes from our analysis exhibits two issues. First, hunter-gatherers lived within the space whereas the Mapungubwe Kingdom arose. Second, throughout this time they have been a part of the financial system that assisted with the looks of elite teams in society, they usually had entry to this wealth. When mixed this tells us that we can not take into consideration Mapungubwe’s historical past with out together with hunter-gatherer societies. They have been current and part of these vital developments.
Why is that this essential? One of many foundational developments that happened that led to the rise of the Mapungubwe Kingdom was the buildup of wealth. It drove the looks of hierarchies in society and marked status. These commerce items have been useful objects normally possessed by elite teams. And but, hunter-gatherers, via exploiting their very own expertise, have been capable of receive associated items at a time when this stuff have been contributing to vital transformations in society. That they’d entry to wealth throughout this era possible exhibits us that their function in native society was valued they usually have been entrenched within the native financial system in a manner that we’ve not earlier recognised.
Unearthing proof of commerce
We have been drawn to Little Muck Shelter due to earlier work on the web site within the late Nineteen Nineties that confirmed intense commerce between hunter-gatherers and farmers happened from the shelter. To know this higher, we wanted a bigger archaeological assemblage to confirm, or refine, what we thought is likely to be happening.
We additionally wished to extra carefully look at the depths that dated between AD 900 and 1300, throughout which the processes resulting in Mapungubwe started and in the end concluded, so as to clearly present a hunter-gatherer presence throughout this era in addition to their participation in native financial networks.
To do that, we wanted to dig. Archaeological excavations are a gradual and meticulous course of that entails the cautious elimination of layers of artefact-bearing deposits with very strict management of depth and placement inside an excavation trench.
Following this can be a prolonged interval of research that adheres to rigorous protocols to make sure consistency in figuring out artefact varieties, their manufacturing methods or strategies, how they have been used, and what they have been constructed from.
We then piece all this proof collectively in our try to grasp previous methods of residing. From our outcomes, we have been capable of hint a hunter-gatherer historical past that intertwined with the rise of Mapungubwe.
Our first and most essential job was to point out that hunter-gatherers have been nonetheless round when Mapungubwe appeared. To this point, we’ve examined about 15,000 stone instruments from a pattern of our excavations and recognized a set of completed instruments which can be the identical as these produced by hunter-gatherers for millennia earlier than farmer teams appeared. We imagine that this consistency in cultural materials over such a protracted span of time clearly exhibits that hunter-gatherers have been residing within the shelter when farmers have been within the space.
We then wished to look extra carefully on the buying and selling financial system. From the second farmer teams appeared within the area, through the early first millennium AD, hunter-gatherers shifted their craft activities. Relatively than principally producing items constructed from conceal, wooden and shell, they started making principally bone implements and did so till the top of the Mapungubwe Kingdom at AD 1300. This implies that the interactions hunter-gatherers had with farmers from after they first arrived stimulated change of their crafted wares.
Why did they alter their crafting actions? On the identical time that these shifts happened, we recorded the looks of commerce wealth within the type of ceramics and glass beads, initially, after which metallic. These items have been by no means made by hunter-gatherers and are widespread at farmer settlements, indicating alternate between these two communities. It signifies that hunter-gatherers responded to new market alternatives via emphasising their very own ability units.
Our work to determine extra proof that exhibits a hunter-gatherer involvement in these processes continues. We’re looking for out in what different methods they have been concerned and whether or not they themselves developed a extra advanced society.